Also, what exists contingently is assembled from elements which previously existed, perhaps, in another combination or arrangement.
Again, Greatness, unlike all other predicates, does not exist by virtue of Being or Goodness taking on some accidental form, called Greatness. God is not merely a particularly good thing but the principle of Good. Were He (per impossibile) not to exist, no good thing could either. And as Anselm's teacher, Augustine, said, God is Truth itself; without Him nothing could be true. Hence, 'without Him' cannot express a possible state of affairs.
It is almost miraculous that for so many centuries no one, apparently, was really clear that Anselm had presented at least two ontological arguments, rather than one, and that Descartes had followed him in this. The present writer was perhaps the first to insist upon this distinction as close to the surface in the writings of the two authors mentioned.6 However, Flint had suggested it with respect to Descartes, and Barth had fully seen it with respect to Anselm. Recently Norman Malcolm (see Bibliography I) has also arrived at it and has presented it so skilfully as to arouse a good deal of interest. (See Sec. 23.)
A few years before Malcolm's essay, Findlay (see Part Two, Sec. 17, and Bibliography I) set forth the following position. Anselm was indeed right in holding that deity____________________