needs. The immigrant status of most parents and the strong future orientation in the United States help to emphasize this filiocentric trend.Among current trends in American society of relevance to child welfare services, the following aspects were discussed:
1. Recent relative decreases in the size of the child population.
2. The changes in child-dependency ratios occasioned by the changing demography.
3. Changes in the life cycle of the family and their effect on childhood dependency.
4. Continued decreases in infant, child, and maternal mortality, and increases in life expectancy.
5. The family disruption caused by the increase in divorce rates, increases in the number of children affected by divorce, increases in illegitimacy rates, and reduction in death rates of the parents. Other factors related to changes in family functioning, such as the increase in the number of working mothers, were also discussed.
6. The prevalance of poverty in the United States, particularly among families headed by a woman and among nonwhite families.
7. Membership in a minority group as a factor in increasing the risk of need for child welfare services because of higher rates of family disruption (through divorce, separation, death, illegitimacy), lower family income, and fewer employment opportunities.
8. Ideological changes regarding childless marriages, family planning, abortion, and the nature of the family.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARIES PHILIPPE. Centuries of Childhood. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1962.
ATHERTON CHARLES R. "The Social Assignment of Social Work." Social Service Review, 43, 4 ( December 1969), 421-429.
BAKLAN DAVID. Slaughter of the Innocents--A Study of the Battered Child Phenomenon. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1971.
BANE MARY Jo. Here to Stay: American Families in the 20th Century. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1976a.
-----. "Marital Disruption and the Lives of Children." Journal of Social Services, 32 ( 1976b), 103-116.
BECK DOROTHY F., and MARY A. JONES. Progress on Family Problems--A Nationwide Study of Clients' and Counselors' Views of Family Agency Service. New York: Family Service Association of America, 1973.
BENNETT H. "The Exposure of Infants in Ancient Rome." Classical Journal, 13 ( 1923), 341-351.
BILLINGSLEY ANDREW. "Family Functioning in the Low Income Black Community." Social Casework, 50, 10 ( December 1969), 563-572.
-----, and JEANNE M. GIOVANNONI. Children of the Storm--Black Children and American Child Welfare. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972.
BLYTHE RONALD. Akenfield-Portrait of an English Village. New York: Delta Paper- book, 1969.
BOSSARD JAMES H. S., and ELEANOR S. BOLL. The Sociology of Childhood, 4th ed. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1966.

-70-

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Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
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