6 HOMEMAKER SERVICES

INTRODUCTION

The social insurance and social assistance programs are designed primarily to meet the needs presented by the fatherless family. Homemaker service is designed primarily to meet the needs of the motherless family, to provide for those crucial aspects of the mother's role--child care and maintenance of the homewhen the mother cannot perform these functions adequately.


Historical Background

These services, under another name, were being offered as early as 1903, when the Family Service Bureau of the Association for the Improvement of the Conditions of the Poor in New York City employed a number of visiting cleaners who supplemented nursing services by "lifting temporarily the simple everyday domestic burdens from sick mothers." These women were later given the title visiting housewives. The Association's Annual Report listed their functions: helping in the renovation and restoration of homes; washing, cleaning, and sometimes preparing meals when the condition of the mother prevented her doing so; and demonstrating the art of good housekeeping. After 1918, care of the children, which was to be the principal reason for such services during many years of homemaker development, begins to be stated in these reports as the purpose of assignments. Although this was always a small service--no more than four visiting housekeepers were employed at any one time from 1903 to 1924--it had much in common with present-day homemaker service ( U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1960, p. 1).

Although Breckinridge and Abbott ( 1912), in a study of the delinquent child, list "visiting housekeepers" as a service provided to families whose children were in danger of becoming delinquent (p. 173), the first organized homemaker program in the country is generally regarded as that established by the Jewish Family Welfare Society of Philadelphia in 1923. The purpose of the program was to provide housekeeper services to families during the temporary absence of the mother. The Jewish Home-Finding Society of Chicago inaugurated its housekeeper service in November 1924. This agency, on the basis of a standing arrangement with family welfare agencies and other welfare organizations of the community, had previously assumed responsibility for the care of children during the mother's absence from home. Prior to the introduction of housekeeping services, all such children had been placed with foster families. Because many of these children required only temporary care during the hos-

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Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
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