hours each day. It is likely that the present trend toward an expansion of homemaker service will continue. Growing difficulties in finding foster homes and growing dissatisfaction with the program of foster care will continue to provide an impetus to explore alternative means of meeting the needs of the motherless family.

Developments in other areas are likely to reinforce the need for homemaker service. For instance, the trend toward community-centered psychiatric services, which help to keep more and more of the mentally ill in the community, requires--for its success--supplementary services such as homemaker service.

2. There is also a trend toward a more imaginative use of homemaker service. For instance, California has used funds available through the Children's Bureau Crippled Children's Program to provide homemakers for the mothers of handicapped children so as to relieve them for a few hours a day. Homemakers have also been used with families charged with neglect "in homes in which standards of household management was [sic] so poor as to seriously jeopardize the health and welfare of children in the family" ( Shames, 1972, p. 12). The homemaker assisted these mothers in the care of their children and instructed them in better methods of child care. The reports of homemakers have also been found to be of great help in determining actual conditions in families suspected of child abuse ( National Council, 1965a, p. 59). And in families with very young retarded children, homemaker service has been used to relieve family pressures and tensions. It has been hoped that as a result, "energies might be released to work out not only appropriate planning for the retarded child, but also to examine and work through family problems created or aggravated by a retarded child" (Retarded Infants Service, 1965, p. 10). Homemakers have also been used effectively with families threatened with eviction from public housing because of poor housekeeping standards, as well as with migrant workers and American Indian families on the reservations ( National Council, 1965, pp. 61-62).
3. Homemakers have been taught the essentials of behavior modification approaches and have been given responsibility for observing, recording, and reporting behavior and implementing techniques for changing maladaptive behavior: "In essence the homemaker serves as the agent through whom the behavior change program is implemented" ( Talsma, 1970, p. 4; See also Steeno, Moorehead, Smits, 1977).

SUMMARY
Homemaker service is a supplementary service that originated in response to the need to assume some aspects of the mother's role for a limited period when she was ill at home or in the hospital. Homemaker service obviates the necessity of placing children in a foster home or institution for short periods and prevents family disintegration during a crisis.Homemaker service is appropriately offered when:
1. The mother is temporarily hospitalized.
2. The mother is in the home but is ill or convalescing.
3. The mother needs tutorial help in developing homemaker skills.
4. The mother needs assistance in caring for a handicapped child.

-260-

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Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
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