Even if the center staff sincerely desires to get the parents involved, this is often difficult. Parents have to allocate scarce time and energy to this activity. They have to find baby-sitters and transportation for evening meetings.

7. There is a growing interest in developing clay care for special groups: emotionally disturbed children, mentally handicapped children, and children of migrant workers. The care of such children requires special equipment and personnel with special training who are willing to devote extra time and energy, to the children. Such day-care centers also make an explicit effort to involve the parents so that the training and/or the therapy achieved in the center is sustained and supported by the parents in the home. The National Association for Retarded Children has been very active and successful in extending day-care services to such children.


SUMMARY

Day care is a supplementary service designed to provide care for the child during the part of the day when the mother is unavailable. Day care, concerned first with the care and the protection of the child, is distinguished from nursery School, which has a more explicit educational focus.

There are two principal kinds of day care: group day care and day care offered in the family-day-care home. Family day care is the more appropriate resource for the child younger than two years old.

Day care is an appropriate resource for the child whose mother is working, for the handicapped child who does not need institutionalization, for the child living in a deprived environment, and in cases of parent-child conflict when the parent needs some relief from care of the child.

In reality, day care is used most frequently to care for the child of the working mother. The problem of day care is thus closely related to the problem of the working mother. The trend is toward an increase in the number of working, mothers. This trend is related to (1) a change in the family from a producing to a consuming unit; (2) the family need for a cash income; (3) changes in the nature of the jobs available; and (4) changes in the life cycle of the family.

In 1977 there were about 6.4 million children under six years of age whose mothers were employed. The probability that a woman will work is related to the age of her children, the presence of a husband in the home, and the level of the husband's earnings.

But despite the sharp increase in the number of working mothers, only a limited number of day-care center places were available: about 900,000 in 1978. Most often, children of working mothers were cared for in their own home by the father or by older siblings. Thus, a small percentage of the children six years of age or under of working mothers were cared for in formal day-care arrangements.

Social workers form part of the day-care-center team, which includes teachers and health personnel as well. Social workers help to prepare the child and the family for the movement into day care, help them with the social and emotional consequences of the use of day care, and act as the liaison between the family and the child in the center.

Problems related to day care include:

-306-

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Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
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