with the social workers. The agency has found a low-keyed approach most helpful, teaching child care, for instance, not in a didactic fashion but at a point where a mother has difficulty in child discipline.

SUMMARY
Out-of-wedlock births are the principal source of children for adoption. Consequently adoption agencies are very much involved with the problem of the single pregnant woman.Although the number of illegitimacies has increased over the 1960s, the rate of increase has diminished. The rate among nonwhites is considerably higher than that among whites, largely for historical and socioeconomic reasons.The single pregnant woman needs medical, housing, and financial help as well as help in preparing for the birth of the child and in deciding whether to keep the child or to give it tip for adoption. The agency provides a variety of services to meet these needs and also attempts to help the putative father.Studies show that the woman who keeps her child is more apt to be nonwhite, lower-class, and limited in education. There is limited support for the contention that she is likely to be somewhat less mature than the woman who gives up the child.Follow-up studies of the mothers who keep their children show that care is adequate and child development generally normal. However, such children are at a developmental disadvantage when compared with children who have been placed for adoption. The mother who keeps her child faces essentially the same problems as mothers who have lost their husbands.Among the problems noted were
The continuing ambivalence about offering the necessary help and services to the unmarried mother and the out-of-wedlock child.
The changing sex norms, which increase the risk of such pregnancies.
The lack of services for some groups of women, particularly the nonwhite and the poor.
Problems concerning parental consent for services to teenage women.
Among the trends noted were
The increasing number of out-of-wedlock births but the decreasing rates for all groups except white teenage women.
The decreasing number of children born out of wedlock surrendered for adoption.
The increasing concern with the problem of teenage pregnancy.
The greater involvement of the putative father in decisions regarding the child and greater concern about his responsibility throughout.
The proliferation of agencies outside of social work concerned with this problem.
The development of multiservice centers to meet the needs of the teenage unmarried mother and services to the unmarried mother who keeps her child and the decrease in maternity home service.

-456-

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Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
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