12
CHILD WELFARE SERVICES IN OTHER COUNTRIES

INTRODUCTION

All countries have child welfare problems that are similar to those encountered in this country. All of the world's children are dependent for a long time and are cared for, primarily, in families. And all over the world parents fall ill, die, desert, have children out of wedlock, struggle with limited resources, and so on. Children who suffer from neglect, abuse, and physical, mental, and emotional handicaps are encountered everywhere in the world.

Madison ( 1968), after a comprehensive recent review of family and child welfare services in the Soviet Union, concludes that "the Soviet definition of child welfare services would not differ essentially from the definition currently used in the United States" (p. 175). Although child welfare services in all countries are not identical, there are similarities that suggest common problems and analogous solutions. Everywhere "common societal needs seem to generate somewhat similar institutional responses" ( Kahn, Kamerman, 1976, pp. 362-363), so that everywhere the same kinds of child welfare services have been developed: supportive, supplementary, and substitute services. And everywhere, the service delivery systems seem to face similar kinds of problems: inadequate financial support, shortages of trained personnel, problems of service integration and coordination, overlap and ambiguous spheres of program responsibility.

The following three case studies from three widely separated countries-- Poland, Zambia, and Japan--are a testimonial to the universality of child welfare problems.


Poland

A social inspectress learned, during her supervision of the guardianship of little Mania, that the latter loved her "guardian" so much that she wanted to become her real daughter. Mrs. N. shared the same desire. She had taken in the child when a baby from the hands of her mother, a girl in great despair, who had subsequently disappeared. The guardian had taken preliminary steps with a view of adopting the little girl, but the formalities had seemed too complicated. Mania bore, in fact, the name of her mother, and it was first of all necessary to initiate a long procedure in order to clear up the situation. With the help of the guardianship court and the police, our inspectress had a search carried out in several

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Child Welfare Services
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Child Welfare: Orientation and Scope 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Summary 28
  • Bibliography 29
  • 2 - Perspectives on Child Welfare Services 33
  • Bibliography 70
  • 3 - Supportive Services 75
  • Introduction 75
  • Summary 107
  • 4 - Supplementary Services: Social Insurance and Public Assistance 115
  • Introduction 115
  • Summary 146
  • Bibliography 147
  • 5 - Protective Services 151
  • Introduction 151
  • Summary 222
  • Bibliography 234
  • 6 - Homemaker Services 235
  • Introduction 235
  • Summary 260
  • Bibliography 262
  • 7 - Day-Care Service 267
  • Introduction 267
  • Summary 306
  • Bibliography 307
  • 8 - Substitute Care: Foster-Family Care 313
  • Introduction 313
  • Summary 400
  • Bibliography 402
  • 9 - The Unmarried Mother and the Out-Of-Wedlock Child 413
  • Introduction 413
  • Summary 456
  • Bibliography 457
  • 10 - Substitute Care: Adoption 465
  • Introduction 465
  • Summary 565
  • Bibliography 567
  • 11 - The Child-Caring Institution 583
  • Introduction 583
  • Summary 621
  • Bibliography 623
  • 12 - Child Welfare Services in Other Countries 631
  • Introduction 631
  • Summary 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • 13 - The Sociology of the Child Welfare Worker 673
  • Introduction 673
  • Summary 695
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 701
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