CHILD WELFARE SERVICES IN OTHER COUNTRIES
All countries have child welfare problems that are similar to those encountered in this country. All of the world's children are dependent for a long time and are cared for, primarily, in families. And all over the world parents fall ill, die, desert, have children out of wedlock, struggle with limited resources, and so on. Children who suffer from neglect, abuse, and physical, mental, and emotional handicaps are encountered everywhere in the world.
Madison ( 1968), after a comprehensive recent review of family and child welfare services in the Soviet Union, concludes that "the Soviet definition of child welfare services would not differ essentially from the definition currently used in the United States" (p. 175). Although child welfare services in all countries are not identical, there are similarities that suggest common problems and analogous solutions. Everywhere "common societal needs seem to generate somewhat similar institutional responses" ( Kahn, Kamerman, 1976, pp. 362-363), so that everywhere the same kinds of child welfare services have been developed: supportive, supplementary, and substitute services. And everywhere, the service delivery systems seem to face similar kinds of problems: inadequate financial support, shortages of trained personnel, problems of service integration and coordination, overlap and ambiguous spheres of program responsibility.
The following three case studies from three widely separated countries-- Poland, Zambia, and Japan--are a testimonial to the universality of child welfare problems.
A social inspectress learned, during her supervision of the guardianship of little Mania, that the latter loved her "guardian" so much that she wanted to become her real daughter. Mrs. N. shared the same desire. She had taken in the child when a baby from the hands of her mother, a girl in great despair, who had subsequently disappeared. The guardian had taken preliminary steps with a view of adopting the little girl, but the formalities had seemed too complicated. Mania bore, in fact, the name of her mother, and it was first of all necessary to initiate a long procedure in order to clear up the situation. With the help of the guardianship court and the police, our inspectress had a search carried out in several