Brotherly Tomorrows: Movements for a Cooperative Society in America, 1820-1920

By Edward K. Spann | Go to book overview

XVI
After Tomorrow

The years from 1916 through 1920 brought an unprecedented devastation of social idealism. Lewis Mumford, who had grown up with the optimism of socialism's golden age, later said that the period saw "the collapse of tomorrow." 1 The hope for a radically better society had encountered setbacks before, but nothing like the one which crippled it during the World War I era. Although Owenism, Fourierism, Georgism, Nationalism, and the other "isms" of the nineteenth century had failed, the cooperative ideal had survived and grown. The years surrounding the War, however, not only killed Debsian socialism but also broke the chain of hope that stretched back to the early years of the previous century.

The World War was surely the most serious challenge to the optimism which had flourished during the previous century. Since the days of Robert Owen, social idealists had dreamed of a world without war where the wastes of national conflicts would be replaced by the riches of international cooperation. The greatest conflict of that century, the American Civil War, did severely test social idealism, especially in its religious forms; the ideal of nonresistance which had inspired Adin Ballou's notable experiment in Christian socialism at Hopedale had been

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Brotherly Tomorrows: Movements for a Cooperative Society in America, 1820-1920
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • I- The Challenge of the Century 1
  • II- The Prophet of New Lanark 17
  • III- A New Harmony? 29
  • IV- Individuality and Brook Farm 50
  • V- Fourierism 67
  • VII- The Phalanx in Dream and Reality 101
  • VIII- A Twilight Long Gleaming 122
  • IX- Preserving the American Eden 143
  • X- The Good Kings of Fouriana 163
  • XI- The Cooperative Commonwealth- Gronlund and Bellamy 176
  • XII- The Nationalist Movement 191
  • XIII- The Great Cooperative National People''s Trust 210
  • XIV- Socialism and "Utopia" 226
  • XV- Debsian Socialism 243
  • XVI- After Tomorrow 262
  • Epilogue- Yesterday and Tomorrow 278
  • Notes 283
  • Bibliography 327
  • Index 345
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