Stigma: A Social Psychological Analysis

By Irwin Katz | Go to book overview

6
A Reverse Tokenism Effect

According to the ambivalence-amplification model, doing a favor for a member of a stigmatized group may arouse psychic tension in the actor because the friendly action contradicts the hostile, disvaluing component of his ambivalent attitude toward people like the recipient. He may feel that he has displayed excessive sympathy for an unworthy object or that he has put himself out for the other person for irrelevant reasons. These cognitions may pose a threat to the actor's self-image as a judicious and fair-minded person. The ensuing attempt to reduce inner conflict may take the form of extreme behavior toward the other person, either positive or negative depending on the circumstances. In this chapter, I am concerned with the positive side of this hypothesis. Studies are presented that test the prediction that doing a favor for a stigmatized stranger will have a more favorable effect on subsequent behavior toward him than will doing a favor for a nonstigmatized person.

Of some relevance is the "foot-in-the-door" phenomenon, first demonstrated by Freedman and Fraser ( 1966), in which meeting a small request increases the likelihood that one will later meet a larger request. Freedman and Fraser showed, for example, that people who promised to display a small sign reading "Keep California Beautiful" in a window of their home were at another time more willing than a one-contact control group to have a large, unsightly sign bearing the same or a different public interest message put up on their front lawn. The effect occurred even when the second request was made by a different person. This finding has since been replicated by several investigators, including Pliner, Hart, Kohl, and Saari ( 1974), Snyder and Cunningham ( 1975), and Seligman, Bush, and Kirsch ( 1976).

-50-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Stigma: A Social Psychological Analysis
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 140

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.