these variables? These are questions of both theoretical and practical significance. Is the child's sense of competence a precursor of his or her intrinsic orientation, or does one's intrinsic orientation lead to mastery attempts, which, if successful, enhance one's sense of competence? Where does the child's sense of control enter into this network?. These are questions that we can now ask of the data. Currently, we are beginning to employ pathanalytic techniques to test alternative causal models. For example, the causal implications in the original diagram were that some combination of intrinsic motivation and success would lead to perceptions of competence and control. Beyond this, however, specific predictions were not advanced. Our measures have allowed us to test much more specific predictions and to pit several seemingly reasonable models against one another in order to determine which one best characterizes our data. In addition to cross-sectional data, we are into the third year of a longitudinal study that will provide us with even greater predictive power ( Connell & Harter, 1979). Thus, we are now in a position to examine causal relationships in the model.
But wait. What model? Do we or do we not have a new and more differentiated model? An earlier section of this chapter referred to "constructs in search of a measure." Perhaps we are now in a position to conclude that there are measurable constructs in search of a model. But right now, it feels a bit beyond our grasp, perhaps not unlike effectance motivation and Santa Claus. Yes, Virginia, somewhere there is a model. Just wait until next Christmas!
The research reported in this chapter was supported by a grant ♯HD-09613 from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, NIH, U.S.P.H.S. Much of the research and thinking presented here has grown out of my collaboration with Jim Connell and Bob Engstrom who have constantly provided conceptual input and statistical expertise. Manuals for the instruments described can be obtained from the author. Author's address: Department of Psychology, University of Denver, 2040 South York, Denver, Colorado 80208.
Aronfreed, J. "The concept of internalization". In Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.
Bandura, A. "Vicarious and self- reinforcement processes". In Glaser (Ed.), The nature of reinforcement. New York: Academic Press, 1971.
Connell, J. P. A multidimensional measure of children's perceptions of control. Unpublished manuscript, University of Denver, 1979.