Developmental Psychobiology: The Significance of Infancy

By Lewis P. Lipsitt | Go to book overview

Easton ( 1972). A study of reflexive behavior in infants may provide evidence to document or clarify the assumption of cephalocaudal development--a belief that has thoroughly influenced our view of early motor development including our tests of infant development. An equally important issue concerns the explication of the process by which cortical inhibition of reflexes occurs. We may ask empirically what the relation is between motor and mental development in infancy--a question of direct consequence for the assessment of infant development.

Answers to these central questions can be produced from renewed research interest in reflexive behavior. Moreover, their resolution will also provide data for the larger question concerning genetic differences. Thus, although few psychologists would deny that the human infant comes into the world with a complex set of reflexive units in virtually every area of his psysiological constitution, few have studied the relevance of these units for the infant's behavioral development. Early behavioristic psychologists may have inadvertently deflected us from this course by emphasizing the classical association of neutral stimuli to reflexive responses. When it became clear that classical conditioning had to be stretched too far to account for much of our complex behavior, we lost interest in the reflexive unit. The suggestion that some behaviors may evolve from reflexive to instrumental actions may serve as a limited corrective. Those behaviors that are crucial to man's basic survival may be highly canalized and one mechanism for expression (and relatively easy study) may be the reflexive pattern--both motor and cognitive.

The approaches to the study of genetic and environmental determinants of infant development can and perhaps should take many directions. Questions about genetic determination are fundamental to questions of genetic differences and should perhaps share a greater portion of the current research effort.


REFERENCES

Allen, G., & Pettigrew, K. D. "Technical comment: Heritability of IQ by social class: Evidence inconclusive". Science, 1973, 182, 1042-1044.

Bayley, N. "Psychological development of the child, Part III: Mental measurement". In F. Falkner (Ed.), Human development. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1966. Pp. 397-407.

Cameron, J., Livson, N., & Bayley, N. "Infant vocalizations and their relationship to mature intelligence". Science, 1967, 157, 331-333.

Easton, T. A. "On the normal use of reflexes". American Scientist, 1972, 60, 591-599.

Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., & Stern, S. E. "Technical comment: Heritability of IQ by social class: Evidence inconclusive". Science, 1973, 182, 1044-1045.

Lewis, M., & McGurk, H. "Evaluation of infant intelligence". Science, 1972, 178, 1174-1177.

-85-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Developmental Psychobiology: The Significance of Infancy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Contributors ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • 1: Heart Rate: A Sensitive Tool for the Study of Emotional Development in the Infant 1
  • Acknowledgments 26
  • References 26
  • Comments on "Heart Rate: A Sensitive Tool for the Study of Emotional Development in the Infant" 32
  • References 34
  • 2: Infancy, Biology, and Culture 35
  • References 53
  • Comments on "Infancy, Biology, and Culture" 55
  • References 57
  • 3: Genetic Determinants of Infant Development: An Overstated Case 59
  • References 77
  • Comments on "Genetic Determinants of Infant Development: An Overstated Case" 80
  • References 85
  • 4: From Reflexive to Instrumental Behavior 87
  • Acknowledgments 103
  • References 103
  • Comments on "From Reflexive to Instrumental Behavior" 105
  • References 106
  • A Reply to Freedman 107
  • References 108
  • 5: Developmental Psychobiology Comes of Age: A Discussion 109
  • References 126
  • 6: Three Themes in Develomental Psychobiology 129
  • References 137
  • Author Index 139
  • Topical Index 143
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 152

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.