Sir Francis Bernard, governor of Massachusetts from 1760 to 1769, was exaggerating only slightly (or had a presentiment of the colonial position ten years in the future) when he wrote in 1765
In Britain the American governments are considered as corporations empowered to make bylaws, existing only during the pleasure of Parliament, who have never yet done anything to confirm their establishment and hath at any time a power to dissolve them. In America they claim . . . to be perfect States, no otherwise dependent upon Great Britain than by having the same king, which having compleat legislatures within themselves are in no ways subject to that of Great Britain; which in such instances as it has heretofore exercised a legislative power over them has usurped it. 5
Only two of our "friends," Thomas Pownall and Josiah Tucker, had the background and experience to draw logical conclusions from Governor Bernard's assessment. We shall meet them and John Cartwright, a man who combined their ideas, in the next chapter.