The importance of rural leadership first came to my attention in the years 1968-71 while serving as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Sik, Kedah. Assigned to the Malaysian Ministry of Health, I sought to work through locally recognized leaders in order to surmount the obstacle of being a youthful outsider. This experience provided an opportunity to work with local leaders on the village and sub-district level, and to observe their relationship to the national administrative apparatus of which I was a part.
The study itself draws heavily upon the background of these years, and upon the data collected during the first three months of 1974 when, as a graduate student in Ohio University's Southeast Asia Program, my wife and I were able to return to Sik. Of the many members of this Program who encouraged me in this venture I would like to single out for particular thanks Professors Paul W. van der Veur and Patricia Gall, without whose prodding and inspiration this study might never have been made.
A number of scholars have read and commented upon the manuscript when it was first presented as the author's M.A. thesis. In addition to my above mentioned mentors I wish to thank David J. Banks, John M. Cohen, Felix Gagliano, Paul Kratoska, J. Norman Parmer, James C. Scott, Marvin L. Rogers, and Robert Van Niel. The original manuscript has been substantially rewritten to incorporate many of their suggestions. I would also like to express especial thanks to Milton L. Barnett for laboring through two subsequent drafts of this study. The contents, of course, remain my own responsibility.
I also wish to thank Hashim bin Abdul of the Kedah State Secretariat for his generous assistance in obtaining documents relevant to this study. Three past District Officers of Sik were also helpful in my research: Y.M.T. Tunku Fariduddin Haji, Y.M.T. Tunku Jusoh bin Tunku Mohammad Jiwa, and Enche Abdul Rashid. Of the many helpful civil servants in Sik's District Office I wish to thank most especially Mahmud bin Khamis, Yacob bin Abdulla, and Mat Tunku.
The maps were drawn by Jane Jorgenson who is to be commended both for making my own clumsy drafts intelligible, and for contributing her own zany perspective to the Bailey household.
My wife Diane lived, worked, enjoyed and made enjoyable our years in