A Practical Introduction to Phonetics

By J. C. Catford | Go to book overview

10
Sound-systems of Languages

1. PHONOLOGY: THE UTILIZATION OF SPEECH-SOUNDS

In the preceding chapters we have talked about speech-sounds for the most part as things-in-themselves--that is, as so many isolated physiologico-acoustic events without much reference to the way in which they are used in different languages. But now we must look at how sounds are utilized--how they are organized into the sound-systems of languages.

The study of the physiological, aerodynamic, and acoustic characteristics of speech-sounds is the central concern of phonetics. The study of how sounds are organized into systems and utilized in languages is the central concern of phonology. Neither of these two linguistic disciplines is independent of the other. A knowledge of what features of sound are most utilized in languages determines what aspects of sound production are most worth studying in depth. Thus phonetics depends to some extent upon phonology to indicate areas of linguistic relevance and importance. Phonology, on the other hand, is heavily dependent on phonetics, since it is phonetics that provides the insights that enable one to discover what sound features are linguistically utilized, and it is phonetics again, that supplies the terminology for the description and classification of the linguistically relevant features of sounds.

Apart from very minor anatomical differences, all human beings have the same vocal apparatus. Consequently, all human beings are capable of producing the same sounds. In other words, the human sound-producing potential is universal, it is also capable of infinite variation. Consonants can be articulated in a great variety of ways at any of the locations within the vocal tract described in Chapter 4, or at any intermediate point. Vowels can be articulated anywhere in the entire vowel-space defined in Chapter 6.

-187-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Practical Introduction to Phonetics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Basic Components of Speech 11
  • 3 - Phonation: a Third Basic Component 36
  • 4 - Articulation: Stricture Types 62
  • 5 - Articulation: Locations 76
  • 6 - Co-Articulation and Sequence 103
  • 7 - Vowels: Introduction 123
  • 8 - The Cardinal Vowels (Cvs) 138
  • 9 - Prosodic Features 172
  • 10 - Sound-Systems of Languages 187
  • 11 - Review 217
  • For Further Reading 229
  • References 231
  • Appendix the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1989) 232
  • Index 235
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 242

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.