A Practical Introduction to Phonetics

By J. C. Catford | Go to book overview

11
Review

We have covered a good deal of ground in this book, and looked closely at many aspects of the production of speech. At times, while the reader was learning, by experiment, the various taxonomic categories of phonetics, it may have seemed difficult to see the wood for the trees. For that reason, it seems desirable to give here a brief review of most of the matters we have dealt with.

A speech act, or speech event, as we saw in the first chapter, can be studied in any one or more of a series of stages, or phases, starting with neurolinguistic programming and passing on through neuromuscular, organic, aerodynamic, acoustic, and neuroreceptive phases to the final stages of neurolinguistic identification of sounds and ultimate decoding and comprehension.

The actual production of the sounds of speech is, as we saw, an aerodynamic process--all vocal sounds are generated by the passage of a stream of air through the vocal tract, driven by the movements of various organs, and modulated to produce specific types of sound by movements and postures of others. The categories used in phonetics for the description and classification of sounds are, therefore, based very largely on the organic and aerodynamic phases of speech.

From now on we carry out our review of the phonetic categories mainly in the form of an extended list or glossary with brief explanations.


Productive Components of Speech

Initiation . An activity in the vocal tract which compresses or rarefies the air in the tract, and hence initiates, or tends to initiate, an air-stream. The organ or organ-group involved in initiation is an initiator.

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A Practical Introduction to Phonetics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Basic Components of Speech 11
  • 3 - Phonation: a Third Basic Component 36
  • 4 - Articulation: Stricture Types 62
  • 5 - Articulation: Locations 76
  • 6 - Co-Articulation and Sequence 103
  • 7 - Vowels: Introduction 123
  • 8 - The Cardinal Vowels (Cvs) 138
  • 9 - Prosodic Features 172
  • 10 - Sound-Systems of Languages 187
  • 11 - Review 217
  • For Further Reading 229
  • References 231
  • Appendix the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1989) 232
  • Index 235
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