rise to new types. Wherever the influence of the pastourelle can be noted, it is possible to trace its original satirical undertone. The peasant girl is mocked for her naiveté, her mother for her shrewishness and cupidity, the knight for his sensuality, his materialism, and his crudity in love-making. The pastourelles are essentially the poems of the mocking bystander, the worldly cynic--in other words, the poems of the wandering cleric or his disciples. Later modification may blunt the barb of the satire but the essentially sophisticated, cynical nature of the genre remains.