minishes that topic. As we saw, the verbal reminiscences, even reminiscences of whole passages, of the works of Chrétien de Troyes are very clear. It is highly probable that the more sophisticated of Marie's contemporaries would recognise them. The use of such material in a form devoted to pleasant tales comes close to mocking the genre from which it derives. Marie is doing very much the same as the Archipoeta, who refused to write an epic on the deeds of Friedrich Barbarossa but did write a short "lyric",on his prowess which proves to be an ironical criticism of his desire to be God's vicegerent on earth in both the secular and spiritual sense. Marie, by her neat use of the lai to parody the romance would make it clear to an audience which was very conscious of the limits of genre what she thought of romance conventions. One does not put battle scenes on cameo rings.