ward and upward had become part of the common stock of knowledge of any educated man. What I do believe is that Hugh set out clearly what Wolfram felt and what he strove to express in his romance, that is, a definite progression in man, during which only failure can result from the wrong direction of virtues, however great they are, and attainment of the highest good of charitas can come only from humilitas. This is the lesson which Parzival had to learn and the question of his failure to ask the question on his first visit to the Grail castle becomes academic. His failure to ask reflects a state of mind, a spiritual immaturity. Only when he has passed through the fire can he realize the meaning of charitas and hence of compassio. It is here that Wolfram rises far above his model Chrétien. For whatever the theological background of his ideas may have been, he sets out to show a spiritual pilgrimage in accordance with a definite plan of descent from innocence through half-understood instruction to despair and thence an ascent firmly based on humility to the glory of full participation in God's purpose and of charity to all men.