AN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, taken in its entirety, is a mirror of the total society in which it functions. The over-all aims of that society, its intentions toward itself and its citizens, are all reflected in some ways--either positively or negatively--in its education. Those who shape educational policies, those who disagree with policies, those who confuse curricula and methodologies with policies, those who argue over subject matter versus techniques, dogma versus freedom of thought, educational leadership versus administrative policing, all of them together, and many more, reflect the sum total of their society's culture. It was shown in Chapter III that when that culture is cramped and circumscribed by colonialism, its educational system is also cramped and circumscribed; its educators may be excellent men, skilled in their trade, but they are not permitted to express themselves as such; the results are apt to be "confusion compounded by resentment and mounting toward chaos." When the society shakes off the lethargy and anguish of its colonialism, when it begins to reshape itself, it also re-examines its educational system, revitalizes it, expands it, reshapes it in line with the society'es total human aims.
When the United States took over the island in 1899 it