Hitler's Death Camps: The Sanity of Madness

By Konnilyn G. Feig | Go to book overview

THE KILLING CENTERSEXCLUSIVE FUNCTION CAMPS

CHELMNO/KULMHOF: THE SECRET CAMP

Unlike Auschwitz, the name "Chelmno" did not bring terror to the hearts of the Poles or to the Jews of the Lodz ghetto exterminated there. For Chelmno, the first of the killing centers, was a secret. All camps were secret if that term is used to identify something the human mind refuses to accept, because it is repulsed or fearful. But Chelmno was truly secret. Its geographical isolation veiled its existence. In their pilot extermination camp, in deep secrecy, the Germans gassed as many as 340,000 human beings at Chelmno, 99 percent of whom were Jews, and burned their bodies in the nearby woods. The entire Jewish population at Lodz, the second largest Polish city, went up in smoke at Chelmno in 1939. Chelmno has no international survivor organizations, for of the more than 300,000 people brought there for extermination, less than 10 escaped. When the Polish government dedicated the monument, only four survivors stood in the crowd. 1

The village of Chelmno is located 14 kilometers from the town of Kolo, and 50 kilometers from Lodz. Not a stick of wood or a piece of concrete remains of the camp. The Germans destroyed all traces of Chelmno, excavating the buried corpses and burning them. The bones were crushed and together with the ashes dumped into the nearby river or thrown to the winds.

Chelmno today is a place or a group of places where something was. The original village no longer exists, nor does the manor house that was located in its midst, appropriated as the reception center for the "relocatees." No killing center had more than limited housing accommodations, but Chelmno had none. It was truly a camp on wheels. Why would food or housing be needed? The relocatees were exterminated the day they arrived. So add a few huts for the Jewish extermination squads, and house the soldiers in the village. No fuss, no costly building operation, no need for large Jewish labor squads. The only extermination machinery needed were the large trucks in which the victims were gassed as they rode from the manor house to the mass graves in the forests 4 kilometers away, or later to the crematoria. The best one can hope for today is to retrace the routes of doomed Jews, walk in the forests that held the graves, and ponder on the probable site of the vanished crematoria.

-266-

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Hitler's Death Camps: The Sanity of Madness
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Camp Names and Locations xiii
  • Preface xix
  • Part One - A Beginning 1
  • Part Two - The Camps 41
  • The Pre-War Camps - Dachau: a Perfect Model 43
  • The Polish Camps 191
  • The German Camps 209
  • The Czechoslovakian Center 234
  • The Killing Centersexclusive Function Camps 266
  • The Labor/ Extermination Complexes 313
  • Liberation 370
  • Poland 394
  • Part Three - The Indifferent the Slaughterérs the Strugglers 405
  • Appendix I - Camp Directions 447
  • Appendix II - The Camps and Commandants 451
  • Appendix III - The Fate of the Commandants 455
  • Notes 461
  • Sources 503
  • Bibliography 506
  • Index 533
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