Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions

By Jaak Panksepp | Go to book overview

brain via the AOS! This was measured by the ability of MOS and AOS destruction to reduce or eliminate the play-reducing effect of cat smell. Accordingly, the evidence indicated that the short-range rather than the longrange olfactory system was mediating the aversive effects of cat smell. This adaptation would mainly allow rats to avoid locations where predators have been, and presumably where they are likely to be again, since most predators are territorial. The olfactory fear of cats is apparently not an evolutionary design that allows rats to detect predators that are prowling at a distance.

Do humans have a similar dual olfactory system? For a long time, investigators thought these structures were vestigial, with only some children still having a functional system. But now it appears that most adults do, in fact, have a functional AOS. 110 There is an increasing amount of evidence that it might act upon our level of sexual arousal -- the topic of the next chapter. This is also a pervasive function of the AOS in animals. Already companies are trying to develop new perfumes targeted for this primitive system that helps make subliminal judgments about the pleasantness and erotic potentials of our social world. Whether the AOS also mediates some human fears remains unknown.


*3*Suggested Readings

Burrows, G. D., Roth, M., & Noyes, R., Jr. (eds.) ( 1990). Handbook of anxiety. Vol. 3, The neurobiology of anxiety. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Denney, M. R. (ed.) ( 1991). Fear, avoidance, and phobias. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dunn, A. J., & Berridge, C. ( 1990). Physiological and behavioral responses to corticotropin-releasing factor administration: Is CRF a mediator of anxiety or stress responses? Brain Res. Revs. 15:71 -- 100.

Fann, W. G., Karacan, I., Pokorny, A. D., & Williams, R. L. (eds.) ( 1979). Phenomenology and treatment of anxiety. New York: Spectrum.

Gray, J. A. ( 1987). The psychology of fear and stress ( 2d ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Klein, D. F., & Rabkin, J. (eds.) ( 1981). Anxiety: New research and changing concepts. New York: Raven Press.

Panksepp, J. ( 1990). The psychoneurology of fear: Evolutionary perspectives and the role of animal models in understanding human anxiety. In Handbook of anxiety. Vol. 3, The neurobiology of anxiety ( G. D. Burrows, M. Roth, & R. Noyes, Jr., eds.), pp. 3-58. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Panksepp, J., Sacks, D. S., Crepeau, L. J., & Abbott, B. B. ( 1991). The psycho- and neurobiology of fear systems in the brain. In Fear, avoidance, andphobias ( M. R. Denney, ed.), pp 7-59. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Puglisi-Allegra, S., & Oliverio, A. (eds.) ( 1990). Psychobiology of stress. Dordrecht: Kluwer Adademic.

Soubrie, P. ( 1986). Reconciling the role of cental serotonin neurons in human and animal behavior. Behav. Brain Sci. 9:319-364.

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