El Niño, 1997-1998: The Climate Event of the Century

By Stanley A. Changnon | Go to book overview

REFERENCES

Angel, J. January 31, 1998. "Climatologist sees above trend yields". Champaign- Urbana News Gazette. p. 1.

Armstrong, J. September 11, 1997. Statement of Associate Director for Mitigation, FEMA. House Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, FEMA News Release, Washington, DC.

Associated Press. October 14, 1997. Gore connects global warming at summit.

-----. December 7 1997. El Niño fueled storm socks California.

-----. January 11, 1998. Canadians reel from icy disaster.

-----. June 4, 1998. Pesky El Niño is singing its swan song, forecasters say.

Barnston, A. G., Glantz, M. H., and He, Y. 1999. "Predictive skill of statistical and dynamical climate models in SST forecasts during the 1997-98 El Niño episode and the 1998 La Niña onset". Bulletin Amer. Meteoro. Soc., 80, 217-243.

Champaign-Urbana News Gazette. March 1, 1998. "El Niño's wrath", p. A7.

-----. March 15, 1998. "El Niño's wrath". p. A11.

-----. June 7, 1998. "Official: Mexico's fires most serious yet seen", p. A6.

Changnon, S., Changnon, D., Fosse, E., Hoganson, N., and Roth R., Sr. 1996. Impacts and Responses of the Insurance Industry to Recent Weather Extremes. Mahomet, IL: Changnon Climatologist.

Chicago Tribune. September 14, 1997. "Hurricane weakens off Mexico, aims for California", p. 9.

-----. September 18, 1997. "Threat of El Niño brings boom season to California roofers". p. 3b.

-----. September 25, 1997. "El Niño already causing headaches: it is worrying traders", p. 1.

-----. October 2, 1997. "Blame it on El Niño", p. 17.

-----. October 14, 1997. "California El Niño summit shares ideas on weathering the storm", p. 2.

-----. October 31, 1997. "El Niño may help slow global warming", p. 13.

-----. February 23, 1998. "USDA forecasts bumper corn and soybean crops, meat and poultry glut", p. 3.

-----. February 23, 1998. "El Niño linked tornadoes kill dozens in Florida", p. 1.

-----. April 13, 1998. "El Niño has twister experts guessing", p. 5.

Cleveland Plain Dealer. September 18, 1997. "El Niño set to boost grain prices", p. 1C.

-----. October 26, 1997. "Why El Niño warms hearts on ski trails", p. 5K.

-----. November 9, 1997. "Amid mild winter forecasts, utilities prepare for the worst", p. 6B.

-----. December 6, 1997. "Insurers worry", p. 10B.

-----. February 2, 1998. "Nothing average about El Niño effect", p. 3.

-----. March 1, 1998. "When winter went AWOL--set records for least snowfall and warmest temperatures", p. 1A.

Cincinnati Inquirer. October 12, 1997. "Giant El Niño rocking science and financial worlds--planners brace for the worst case", p. D01.

-----. November 9, 1997. "Tristate road crews aren't lulled--salt supplies disregarding El Niño", p. B03.

-105-

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El Niño, 1997-1998: The Climate Event of the Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Contents xi
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Contributors xv
  • 1 - What Made El NiñO 1997-1998 Famous? 3
  • References 26
  • 2 - Causes, Predictions, and Outcomes of El NiñO 1997-1998 28
  • References 47
  • 3 - Was El NiñO a Weather Metaphor--A Signal for Global Warming? 49
  • Notes 67
  • References 67
  • 4 - The Scientific Issues Associated with El NiñO 1997-1998 68
  • Appendix 103
  • References 105
  • 5 - Who Used and Benefited from the El NiñO Forecasts? 109
  • References 134
  • 6 - Impacts of El NiñO's Weather 136
  • References 166
  • 7 - Policy Responses to El NiñO 1997-1998 172
  • References 193
  • 8 - Summary Surprises, Lessons Learned, and the Legacy of El NiñO 1997-1998 197
  • References 209
  • Index 211
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