Other People's Money
The modern Moses, who leads his race and lifts it through Education to even better and higher things than a land overflowing with milk and honey.
ANDREW CARNEGIE, 1903
BOOKER T. Washington was a materialist. He believed that strong black institutions would bring forth strong black men and women, and he undertook to build such a tower of strength in an unlikely place, the worn-out cotton fields of the Alabama Black Belt. He started with nothing but the piddling state appropriation of $2000 a year, that and the sheer numbers of his black clientele. He would never lack for students, but he needed money, and by his willpower, cajolery, and compromise he built his school. Beginning ' in the 1880s with the sponsorship of Hampton Institute and the old wealth of New England and the waning zeal of its Congregational and Unitarian church folk, he sensed around the turn of the twentieth century the coming of a philanthropic revolution. The swollen fortunes of American industrialization and financial capitalism rolled out of the Mid- west into New York City and were ready to be disgorged. Washington seized the moment and in 1905 moved his northern headquarters from Boston to the new philanthropic capital, New York, soon after the moguls of oil and steel, John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie, moved from Cleveland and Pittsburgh to live in mansions in the money capital. Washington's money-raising headquarters was not in a man-