circles, the independence and originality of American culture, proclaimed by Emerson in his Phi Beta Kappa Address of 1837, is generally recognized and the number of those who hold a contrary view is dwindling away. Much, however, still remains to be done before American culture, in its specific quality, is generally understood in Europe, even in "educated" circles.
IN the field of politics the transmission of the Greek heritage encountered very different conditions. Here, too, the Greeks broke completely fresh ground. In their small communities of cultivators and craftsmen they discovered methods for the conduct of public affairs which are now recognized to be the right methods. They originated the concept and worked out the technique of constitutional democracy; and the memory of this achievement was perpetuated by a series of thinkers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who discussed the problems and threshed out many of the issues involved in the working of a free society-- in particular, the relationship between Politics and Ethics and the question of the nature of Justice and Freedom as political and social concepts.
HAD the fourth century B.C. pursued a normal course, the political concepts and the practical experience thus made available would in due time have influenced neighboring free peoples in