A PROGRAM OF UNIVERSAL
UNTIL recently a belief has prevailed that although universal training in the three R's and patriotism is a legitimate goal to be achieved as quickly as possible, secondary education need be acquired by no more than a portion of all citizens--those destined to be leaders. Former President Hoover and a large number of other national leaders have appreciated the necessity in America for the education of the entire citizenry beyond the level which might suffice in non-democratic societies. In his inaugural address President Hoover pointed out that literacy was not enough, because the leadership of the country must be drawn from the entire population. The often quoted statement of President Madison that democracy without education is a prologue either to farce or tragedy, or both, is typical of the beliefs, held by men of vision in national affairs from Franklin on, concerning the implications of democracy for education. The essential idea of democracy is that those who govern are responsible to the electorate. This means much more than literacy or elementary education.
That democracy has operated so awkwardly, even in the days when the democratic ideals generated by the revolution still burned brightly, is of course largely attributable to the incompetence and ignorance of the sovereign people. With the increased complexity incident to the