Poverty in Transition and Transition in Poverty: Recent Developments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia, Russia, Mongolia

By Yogesh Atal | Go to book overview

Chapter Six
MONGOLIA In the Grip of Poverty

Tsogt Nyamsuren

Ministry of External Relations of Mongolia


Introduction

At the end of the 1980s the world entered a new era. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist system, the world was no longer divided by Cold War borders. It is now acknowledged that socialism, once practiced by the countries of the Eastern bloc, was not able to solve cultural, social, economic, political, and ecological problems. Moreover, it will take several decades to repair the damages caused by totalitarian socialism. However, the failure of socialism confronts us with an historic challenge. People expect instant changes in their lifestyle to compensate for years of oppression and privation. In a climate of such high expectations, one forgets that the transition from a socialist society to a market- oriented economy is not an easy road. There are difficulties all along the way, and the process is lengthy. It is too much to expect immediate rewards. The transition process requires not only a change in the structure of the economy but also in the system of the polity. Social transformation involves the creation of a democratic polity and a system of social justice for all. The democratic order can become stable only when the economic, social, and legal systems are just and fair. It cannot survive without the rule of law. It will be even less viable in the absence of an unfair economic and social order.

The process of transition is made difficult by the phenomenon of poverty. Not only are there groups of people who live in abject poverty,

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Poverty in Transition and Transition in Poverty: Recent Developments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia, Russia, Mongolia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction 1
  • Bibliography 31
  • Chapter One - Recent Trends in Poverty in Hungary 32
  • Bibliography 75
  • Chapter Two - Emerging Poverty in Bulgaria 77
  • Bibliography 100
  • Chapter Three - Poverty in Romania 102
  • Conclusion 126
  • Bibliography 128
  • Chapter Four - Toward Poverty Eradication in Georgia 130
  • Appendix 172
  • Bibliography 175
  • Acknowledgment 176
  • Chapter Five - The Russian Case Social Policy Concerns 177
  • Bibliography 220
  • Chapter Six - Mongolia in the Grip of Poverty 223
  • Conclusion 253
  • Bibliography 255
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