I gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of the many people and institutions that have contributed to the completion of this book and the dissertation upon which it was based. Sylvia Frey, Lawrence Powell, Patrick Maney, Clarence Mohr, Anastatia Sims, Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, Elizabeth Hayes Turner, Wayne Flynt, Paul Fuller, Jane Sherron De Hart, and Suzanne Lebsock have read all or parts of the manuscript. Special mention should be made of the late A. Elizabeth Taylor, who agreed to read a chapter in spite of her retirement from such duties. In addition, readers who have critiqued portions of the book for conference presentations included Martha Swain, Patricia Meador, Sidney Bland, Eileen Boris, and Wanda Hendricks. I cannot say that I actually enjoyed taking criticism, but the spirit in which all of the above readers offered their comments made the ordeal much easier.
Several people shared research, unpublished papers, and ideas with me. At a time when this project was barely underway, Mary Martha Thomas generously shared with me her research on the Alabama suffrage movement. Sandra G. Treadway, editor of the forthcoming multivolume Dictionary of Virginia Biography, graciously allowed me to use the extensive research files of the Publications Division of the Virginia State Library. The biographical data obtained from those files helped to speed up the time-consuming chore of identifying pertinent information on less well known women. Glenda Gilmore and Anastatia Sims shared their unpublished conference papers. Marjorie Spruill Wheeler allowed me to use an advance copy of her then-unpublished New Women of the New South. And although he still has yet to read the manuscript in its entirety, Michael Powelson's influence on my thinking permeates every page.
Funding has come from several sources: the Newcomb College Center for Research on Women, the Department of History and the Graduate School of Tulane University, the U.S. Department of Education (in the form of a Patricia Roberts Harris Dissertation Fellowship), and the Mellon Research Fellowship of the Virginia Historical Society. All of these funds are gratefully acknowledged.
As a former reference archivist myself, I take great pleasure in thanking the numerous librarians and archivists who have helped facilitate the research for this book. The bibliography lists the various repositories consulted; I thank the