Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution

By Peter A. Danielson | Go to book overview

conference. My work on this essay was supportea in part by the Center for the Study of Language and Information.


Notes
1
The linking principle is concerned with rational decision based on deliberation. It has nothing to say about the possibility of causing oneself to have certain intentions/ plans by, say, taking a certain drug. My formulation here has benefited from discussions with Gilbert Harman, John Pollock, and Bryan Skyrms. I discuss the linking principle also in "Planning and temptation" and in "Toxin, temptation and the stability of intention."
2
Other elements of my response to Gauthier recent essays are in "Toxin, temptation and the stability of intention."
3
I discuss issues raised by preference change cases in "Planning and temptation" and in "Toxin, temptation and the stability of intention." I believe such cases should be given an importantly different treatment than that proposed here for cases (1)-(3).
4
At least, this is how the toxin case is standardly understood. I will proceed on this assumption (which Gauthier shares), but raise a question about it below in note 11.
5
Gauthier uses this terminology in "Intention and Deliberation." I assume that, despite the talk of "outcome," such reasons can involve reference to the past. I assume, for example, that reasons of revenge or gratitude can count as "outcome-oriented."
6
Gauthier develops these remarks about policies in "Assure and threaten."
7
My discussion below, in section 3, offers one such argument; my discussion in "Toxin, temptation and the stability of intention" offers another.
8
I use this terminology to indicate a parallel between what I say here and Smart ( 1967) criticism of rule-utilitarianism as supporting unacceptable "rule worship." I discuss this parallel further in "Planning and the stability of intention," where I also discuss related views of Edward McClennan ( 1990). My remarks here are similar in spirit to those of Pettit and Brennan ( 1986), p. 445.
9
I reach a similar conclusion, by way of a somewhat different (and more developed) argument, in "Toxin, temptation and the stability of intention." A main concern in that paper is to clarify differences between cases (1)-(3), on the one hand, and certain cases of preference change, or of intransitive preferences, on the other. The latter sorts of cases, as well as constraints imposed by our cognitive limitations, lead to significant divergences from the TE view.
10
See Scanlon ( 1990), esp. pp. 205-06. Of course, an account along such lines could not simply appeal to the usefulness of an ability to put ourselves under assurance-based obligations. There are many abilities that we do not have even though it would be useful to have them.

-64-

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Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Series Editors ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Contributors ix
  • 1: Introduction 3
  • References 9
  • Rationality 11
  • 2: Rationality and Rules 13
  • Notes 34
  • 3: Intention and Deliberation 41
  • References 54
  • 4: Following Through with One's Plans: Reply to David Gauthier 55
  • Notes 64
  • Notes 65
  • 5: How Braess' Paradox Solves Newcomb's Problem 67
  • Notes 86
  • 6: Economics of the Prisoner's Dilemma: A Background 92
  • Notes 111
  • Notes 115
  • 7: Modeling Rationality: A Normative or Descriptive Task? 119
  • References 132
  • Modeling Social Interaction 135
  • 8: Theorem 1 137
  • References 158
  • 9: The Failure of Success: Intrafamilial Exploitation in the Prisoner's Dilemma 161
  • References 184
  • 10: Transforming Social Dilemmas: Group Identity and Co-Operation 185
  • Conclusion 206
  • Acknowledgments 207
  • Notes 207
  • Notes 208
  • 11: Beliefs and Co-Operation 210
  • References 234
  • 12: The Neural Representation of the Social World 236
  • References 253
  • Morality 255
  • 13: Moral Dualism 257
  • Notes 278
  • Notes 281
  • 14: Categorically Rational Preferences and the Structure of Morality 282
  • Notes 301
  • References 301
  • 15: Why We Need a Moral Equilibrium Theory 302
  • Notes 330
  • Notes 338
  • 16: Morality's Last Chance 340
  • Notes 371
  • Notes 374
  • Evolution 377
  • 17: Mutual Aid: Darwin Meets the Logic of Decision 379
  • Notes 403
  • Notes 404
  • 18: Three Differences Between Deliberation and Evolution 408
  • Notes 420
  • Notes 421
  • 19: Evolutionary Models of Co-Operative Mechanisms: Artificial Morality and Genetic Programming 423
  • Acknowledgments 439
  • Notes 439
  • Notes 441
  • 20: Norms as Emergent Properties of Adaptive Learning: The Case of Economic Routines 442
  • Notes 459
  • Notes 461
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