Scott-Kilvert, Ian. 1960. The Rise and Fall of Athens: Nine Greek Lives by Plutarch. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.
Warner, Rex. 1979. Xenophon: A History of My Times [The Hellenica]. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.
Connor, W. Robert. 1992. The New Politicians of Fifth Century Athens. Indianapolis: Hackett. A nuanced but highly readable examination of the changing dynamics of Athenian political life in the fifth century.
De Jacqueline Romilly. 1988. Thucydides and Athenian Imperialism. Trans. P. Thody. Reprinted Salem, N.H.: Ayer Co. Publishers. A classic study of Thucydides and the empire.
Ehrenberg, Victor. 1974. The People of Aristophanes. Reprinted New York: Barnes & Noble. A study of the sociology and economics of the Athenian state based on a close examination of data in Aristophanes' comedies.
Green, Peter. 1970. Armada from Athens. London: Hodder and Stoughton. A spirited account of the Athenian invasion of Sicily by a distinguished ancient historian.
Hansen, Mogens Herman. 1995. The Trial of Socrates from the Athenian Point of View. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. Discussion of the sources, a reconstruction of the trial, and an investigation of the political background of the prosecution.
Hornblower, Simon. 1986. Thucydides. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. A penetrating study of the "historian's historian."
Kagan, Donald. 1974, 1981, 1987. The Archidamian War (1974), The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981), and The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987). Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. These three volumes offer a detailed analysis of the war's military and diplomatic history.
Loraux, Nicole. 1986. The Invention of Athens: The Funeral Oration in the Classical City. Trans. Alan Sheridan. Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press. An examination of the key role of the Athenian funeral oration in shaping ideals of civic life and defining what Athens was all about.
Meiggs, Russell. 1972. The Athenian Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press. A history of Athens' relationship with its allies from the inception of the Delian League to the end of the Peloponnesian War, with chapters on the judgments made on the empire in both the fifth and fourth centuries and a chart recording tribute payments for the years 453 to 420.
Strauss, Barry. 1993. Fathers and Sons in Athens: Ideology and Society in the Era of the Peloponnesian War. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. A sensitive analysis of Athenian society during the last decades of the fifth century that grounds conflict in intergenerational tension.