Education and Society in Germany

By H. J. Hahn | Go to book overview

government. Moreover, previous reforms carried out under the Empire should not be underestimated; we can now discern in them a more modernist, reformist trend than previous research would have led us to expect.

On the whole, the Weimar Republic arouses more interest on account of its contradictions rather than its genuine reforra projects. Many of its progressive ideas had their origins under the Empire, while its truly modernist phase was confined to the first two or three years of its existence. At the same time, the Republic must be seen as providing a springboard for developments which were to foreshadow racist and fascist advances during the Third Reich. Here, too, care must be taken not to disregard the potential which had accumulated prior to Hitler's rise to power. Chapter 4 will discuss to what extent the mandarin community can be held responsible for the decline into barbarity.


Notes
1.
O. Spengler ( 1923), Der Untergang, des Abendlandes, 33rd edn, Munich, vol. 1, pp. 468f.
2.
Cf. F. K. Ringer ( 1969), The Decline of the German Mandarins, The German Academic Community 1890-1933, Cambridge, Mass., chaps 4, 6, 7.
3.
Cf. F. Tönnies ( 1887), Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft: Abhandlung des Communismus und des Socialismus als empirischer Culturformen, Leipzig; H. Plessner ( 1924), Grenzen der Gemeinschaft, Bonn.
4.
Quoted from Ringer, Decline, p. 356.
5.
For a more detailed study cf. R. H. Samuel and R. Hinton Thomas ( 1949), Education and Society in Modern Germany, London, pp. 122f.
6.
Ringer, Decline, p. 387.
7.
J. Herf ( 1984), Reactionary Modernism. Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich, Cambridge, chap. 1.
9.
E. Spranger ( 1928), Der deutsche Klassizismus und das Bildungsleben der Gegenwart, 2nd edn, Erfurt, p. 5.
10.
K. Löwith ( 1989), Mein Leben in Deutschland vor und nach 1933. Ein Bericht, Frankfurt/M., p. 114.
11.
F. Nicolin ( 1978), 'Theodor Litt', in J. Speck (ed.), Geschichte der Pädagogik des 20. Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, vol. ' 2, p. 80.
12.
Ibid., p. 82.
13.
T. Litt ( 1919), Individuum und Gemeinschaft, Leipzig.

-63-

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Education and Society in Germany
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Figures vii
  • Preface ix
  • Notes xi
  • 1 - The German Concept of Bildung 1
  • Notes 18
  • Textual Studies 21
  • 2 - A Period of Transition: from the Formation of the Empire to the First World War 26
  • Notes 42
  • Textual Studies 44
  • 3 - The Weimar Republic: Reform and Reaction 50
  • Notes 63
  • Textual Studies 65
  • 4 - Education and Ideology Under National Socialism 71
  • Notes 84
  • Textual Studies 86
  • 5 - Re-Education After 1945 91
  • Notes 105
  • Textual Studies 108
  • 6 - The Education System of the Federal Republic 1949-1989: the Reluctant Process of Modernization 113
  • Notes 130
  • Textual Studies 133
  • 7 - Education in the Former Gdr: Socialist Education in Theory and Practice 137
  • Notes 153
  • Textual Studies 155
  • 8 - Trends in Education and Society Since Unification 159
  • Notes 176
  • Textual Studies 179
  • Select Bibliography 183
  • Index 188
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