Civil War in Yugoslavia
All the more important aspects of Titoism were established even before the civil war between Partisans and Chetniks had started. The attempt to create a communist dictatorship without détours, the rejection of a multi-party National Front of Resistance, the concentration upon the war against adversaries at home to the detriment of the anti-Nazi war--these, as well as the conflict with Moscow lurking behind a façade of boundless devotion, and the drive at co-operating with London regardless of a basic hostility, had emerged before the first shot was fired on 2nd November 1941, between the outposts of Partisans and Chetniks in the Ibar valley. And no wonder! The roots of Titoism go deep because, as our summary of Tito's early biography tends to prove, Titoism is not the result of a lingering regret of national independence in the hearts of communist leaders of the old generation, but the outcome of the dynamism of a generation of young communists, used to obey unquestioningly but following its innate instincts when suddenly thrown back upon its own resources.
Understanding the beginnings of Titoism means understanding its course. The whole history of the Yugoslav civil war and what followed it consists, in a sense, of no more than embroideries upon two or three well-defined and interconnected themes. Also, as our story proceeds, more numerous and less controversial sources become increasingly available, more facts can be taken for granted, less criticism of scanty documents is needed. It is, in many respects, a fairly simple story, once the fundamentals have been clarified.
Yet there is one aspect which still needs clarification from the roots upwards: the history of the actual Partisan operations in Yugoslavia. These have been bewildering to every student, and for a long time I could not find a way through the maze of accounts. The Yugoslav communists count seven German offensives against