While in the West the Comintern, once the crisis of Liberation was over, could not do much more than mark time, in eastern Europe the process of establishing communist domination in the Russian-occupied territories went on. That process has become known as the emergence of the 'Popular Democracies'. The term was coined by Tito, who defined this 'new type of democracy', at the congress of the Yugoslav Fatherland Front in August 1945, as a democracy based upon the social equality of the masses; adding that it was incompatible with monarchy. During the subsequent years communist propaganda everywhere made a point of stressing the difference between Popular Democracy and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat; until, in 1949, Joseph Revai, the theoretician of the Hungarian communist party, stated officially that the two were one and the same thing.1 But even then this was treated as an official secret, and availing themselves of the secrecy of this view communists, crypto- communists and fellow-travellers are still spreading tales that, originally, Stalin did not want to establish complete communist rule in those countries. Actually, Stalin's whole policy since 1942 had had as its primary object the establishment of complete Russian control in that area. And in terms of a totalitarian dictatorship such as Stalin's complete control over an area means precisely these two things: control of the Russian secret police and control of the communist party, to the exclusion and extinction of every other force.
Looked at from the angle of the various victims, this operation was not even of a political character in the proper sense of the word. Yugoslavia excepted, not one of the satellite countries was conquered by its communists either during or after the war. They were all conquered by the Russian army, which brought with it____________________