A History of Australia: From the Earliest Times to the Age of Macquarie

By C. M. H. Clark | Go to book overview

14
MACQUARIE, 1816-1819

ON THE MORNING of Thursday, 17 January 1816, news of great moment reached Sydney Cove. Under the Duke of Welington, the British army had won the sanguinary but decisive battle of Waterloo. That night a gay assemblage graced a room at the new general hospital for a ball and supper. the floor was painted with emblems of martial glory with a figure of fame in the centre sounding her trumpet and holding in her right hand a scroll on which were inscribed the words 'Waterloo', 'Wellington', and 'Victory'. Stars, insignia and mottoes ornamented the arches and pillars, while the royal arms appeared at the upper end of the room through an elegant transparency. Native shrubs, evergreens and flowers hung in graceful festoons. The dancing, the drinking, and the general merriment continued till dawn. On the Saturday, Macquarie proceeded to Hyde Park to witness a feu de joie by his regiment in honour of the signal and glorious victory. The firing was preceded by a grand salute from the battery at Dawes' Point, while the royal standard waved from Fort Phillip, and the Union Jack from Dawes' Point. On the Sunday, psalms of praise and thanksgiving were sung in all the churches.1 It was a memorable moment not only in the history of British civilization in the old world, but also in the new. For by then the colony of New South Wales had begun to face problems whose solution was to influence its history until the discovery of gold in the middle of the century.

Not the least of these was to find land for the increasing number anxious to become settlers. Up to 1810, four hundred all told had come as free immigrants to the colony, apart from the civil and military officers. By 1820, nine hundred and forty-three men, together with three hundred and thirty- three women and six hundred and sixty-five children (most of the latter being the wives and children of convicts) had come free to New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, together with a tiny group of men with property.2 By April 1817, Macquarie was telling Bathurst that no very great quantity of Crown Land remained unappropriated on the Sydney side of the Blue Mountains, or the east side of the Nepean. Consequently, he continued, future settlers would have either to cross the Blue Mountains to the newly discovered country, or proceed south to Illawarra. Natural increase, grants to civil and military officers, grants to emancipists, and second grants, had left very little elsewhere for the new settler.3

____________________
1
Sydney Gazette, 20 and 27 January 1816.
2
See R. B. Madgwick: Immigration into Estern Australia ( London, 1937), p. 30 and p. 32.
3
"Macquarie to Bathurst, 4 April 1817", H.R.A., 1, 9, p 350.

-296-

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A History of Australia: From the Earliest Times to the Age of Macquarie
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Preface ix
  • Contents xi
  • Errata xiii
  • Contents xiii
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Part I - The Forerunners 1
  • I - The Earliest Times to Catholic Christendom 3
  • 2 - The Contribution of The Protestants 21
  • 3 - The Sons of Enlightenment 42
  • Part II - The Foundation 57
  • 4 - The Choice of Botany Bay 59
  • 5 - The Beginning of Sydney Cove 73
  • 6 - Convicts and the Faith Of The Founders 90
  • Part III - Phillip to Bligh 111
  • 7 - Phillip 113
  • 8 - Grose, Paterson and Hunter 132
  • 9 - King, Flinders, and Port Phillip 160
  • 10 - Van Diemen's Land and The Civilization of New South Wales 186
  • II - Bligh 210
  • 12 - The Society of New South Wales In 1810 235
  • Part IV - The Age of Macquarie 261
  • 13 - Macquarie, 1810-1815 263
  • 14 - Macquarie, 1816-1819 296
  • 15 - Macquarie, 1820-1821 337
  • 16 - Macquarie and Mr Commissioner Bigge In England 367
  • Appendices 381
  • A Select Bibliography 389
  • Index 411
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