THE change of rulers in Massachusetts at the deposition of Winthrop had consisted merely in the promotion of two of his associates in the magistracy, while he was still their colleague in the Board of Assistants. The government continued to be conducted according to the same principles and methods as during the four years of his wise and upright administration. While the intelligence from England caused great uneasiness, the means and the confidence of the colonists were increased by the arrival of large numbers of their friends.1 "Five hundred pounds more was raised towards fortifications,"2 almost immediately after the first large expenditure for that purpose.
The question which has been referred to, respecting the obliteration of the cross of St. George from the royal ensign, arose during the year of Dudley's administration. At a Court of Assistants, "complaint was made by some of the country, . . . . . that the ensign at Salem was defaced; namely, one part of the red cross taken out. Upon this an attachment was awarded against Richard Davenport, ensign-bearer, to appear at the next Court to answer. Much matter was made of this, as fearing it would be taken as an act of rebellion, or of like high nature, in defacing the king's colors; though the truth were, it was done upon this opinion, that the red cross was given to the king of England by the Pope, as an ensign of victory, and so a superstitious thing, and a relic of Antichrist."3
Mutilation of the English flag. Nov. 5.