Primitive Italy and the Beginnings of Roman Imperialism

By Léon Homo | Go to book overview

CHAPTER II
THE RETREAT OF ETRURIA, THE DECLINE OF HELLENISM, AND THE GAULISH INVASIONS

I
THE RETREAT OF ETRURIA

THE general evolution of the Italian peninsula in the fourth century B.C. was governed by three fundamental facts: the retreat of Etruria, the decline of Hellenism, and the Gaulish invasions. These events, which in magnitude and scope overflow the framework of the Roman annalistic tradition to an exceptional degree, exerted by themselves, and still more by their interaction, a decisive influence upon the destinies of Rome, and they alone render her extraordinary fortune intelligible.

The decay of Etruria was no new phenomenon. It was a process which developed, and an evolution which gathered speed. The defeat before Cumæ and the loss of Latium at the end of the sixth century, the first acts of the drama, re- sulted in a great change in the international situation in Italy and elsewhere. The decay of Etruria was accelerated in the fifth century and soon became irremediable. Ex- ternal and internal causes combined to bring about this result--the reaction of the long-subdued native races, re-

Bibliography. --Texts:Livy, V, 32-VII, 28 (cf. Florus, I, 7-8; Eutropius, I, 20-II, 6; Orosius, II, 19; III, 3-7); Polybius, I, 6; II, 18, 22, 39, 5-7; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, XIII-XV (frags.); Diodorus, XIV-XVI; Dio Cassius, VII (frags., cf. Zonaras, VII, 23-25); Plutarch, Camillus; Appian, Celtic., frag. 1; Antiochus, in F.H.G., I. p. 183, frag. 12; Aristoxenes, id., II, p. 291, frag. 90; Timæus, id., I, p. 218, frag. 99; Strabo, V, 1, 4 (p. 212 C); V, 2, 8 (p. 226 C); V, 4, 2 (p. 241 C); V, 4, 7 (p. 246 C); V, 4, 9 (p. 248 C); VI, 1, 13 (p. 263 C); VI, 1, 1 (p. 252 C); VI, 1, 2 (p. 253 C); VI, 1, 14 (p. 264 C); VI, 3, 4 (p. 280 C); Justinian, XX, 5; XXVIII, 2, 6-7; Velleius Paterculus, I, 4, 2; Pliny, Hist. Nat., III, 133; Scylax, in G.G.M., I, pp. 24-26; Ined. Vatic., III; de Viris Illustribus, 23-24.

Inscriptions. --Fasti consulates (C.I.L., I2, pp. 120-28); Fasti triumphales, especially years 360, 358, 357, 356, 354, 350, 346 (id., p. 17).

Principal Works. -- XX, III, 3-323, 377-81; IV, 251-69, 271-74; XXVI, II, 156-290; XXV, 8-15; CCII, II, 162-76, 201-19, 221-25, 351-61; CXL, 99, 322-24, 452-56; CXLI, 64-76.

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