Primitive Italy and the Beginnings of Roman Imperialism

By Léon Homo | Go to book overview

CHAPTER V
THE ORGANIZATION OF ITALY BY ROME

I
ANNEXATION AND FEDERATION

THE organization of conquered Italy as we find it completed by the third century before our era was the result of a gradual process, which had not been carried out in a uniform manner. It had progressed at the same pace as, and step by step with, the conquest itself. For several centuries Rome had been learning, experimenting, and, as so constantly in her history, profiting by experience.

In default of the details which tradition, in its present state, too often withholds, we can at least discern the general ideas guiding it and record its results as exact and definite formulæ. Two great parallel systems, annexation and federation, came at length to be applied to the whole of peninsular Italy after having been tested first in the restricted domain of Latium, and then perfected and finished off on the wider field of Central Italy.

The system of annexation was the older; we find it in favour from the time of Rome's origins, but in the course of centuries it had evolved both in its form and in the manner of its application. At the start it included two fundamental varieties. The territory might be annexed and the inhabitants, when not annihilated by a general massacre or enslavement,1 would be transplanted to Rome. This

____________________
Bibliography.--Texts: Texts are rare. Consult especially (a) for § § I-III, Livy, VIII, 13, 10-14 (reorganization of Latium in 3 38)); VIII, 17, 12; IX, 43, 24; X, 1, 2-3; Velleius Paterculus, I, 14-15 (general history of Roman colonization); Festus, s.v. "Municeps" (pp. 117 and 126), "Municipium" (p. 155); "Præfecturæ" (p. 262); Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticœ, XVI, 13, 7; (b) for § IV, Polybius, II, 24, and VI (fragmentary), 19-42.

Principal Works.-- XIV, VIII, 3-78; XX, III, 351-74; IV, 406-28; XXVI, II, 430-64; LXXXIX; XXV, 14-24.

1
That had happened to Apiolæ ( Dion, III, 49), Corniculum (ib., III, 50), and later to Veii (see p. 150 above).

-219-

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