INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION OF AMERICA
ENGLAND entered the industrial revolution with well- developed political and social institutions; the people of America began their industrial evolution with a newly formed constitution, with a national debt, and with small conception of the vast changes that were to take place in their country. The revolution in England extends from the year 1776 to 1815; in America it is a period of successive waves of human life in which the savage is superseded by the hunter, the hunter by the trader, the trader by the rancher, the rancher by the farmer and the latter by the manufacturer with his accompanying organization of city and factory system. In time the period extends a hundred years after the adoption of the constitution; the movement has been at times quick, at others slow, in the development of trade, commerce, transportation and manufacture.
Cultivated farms, towns and cities were the possessions of England when the great industrial changes began; in America the people were compelled to conquer forests, to make roads and bridges, and to subdue nature. The story of English growth is the story of an organized society gradually casting aside the old and accepting the new, while the history of America is the story of free land, its settlement, and the advancement toward the west of American civilization--a story, indeed, of reversion to primitive conditions on a continually advancing fron-