THE RISE OF GERMANY
DESPITE notions to the contrary Germany is not a new-comer into the family of nations. For hundreds of years she has exerted a great power in the politics of Europe and previous to the nineteenth century occupied at times an honorable place in the world's trade. As a unified national force and as a great world state her influence in mundane affairs dates from the origin of the present Empire.
Retarded by political disturbances, the jealousies of many petty States, and the encroachments of enemies upon German soil, Germany left her industries undeveloped and devoted her energies to political problems of so serious a nature that time and skill were required for their solution. Political unity was necessary before her national industrial organization could be completed. To accomplish this the slow process of history, the consolidating influences of successful wars and diplomacy of an unusual order were necessary. It was after such movements that a land divided into so many principalities was united and began the organization of its industrial forces.
England and the United States, isolated by geographical position, were freed from many problems that confronted Germany. In them the industrial changes that led to the substitution of a factory system for the old domestic forms of industry were the result of individual