TRANSPORTATION is the act of carrying economic goods and persons from one part of an industrial society to another. In the continuance of the act, a society is brought into union and soon binds its different parts together by the facilities provided for moving goods and passengers. As seen in its modern form transportation may be considered the best example of social and industrial organization. Through its rapid development the territorial division of labor is encouraged which leads ultimately to centralization and wide specialization of industry. This point is brought out more clearly by reference to an example illustrating the relation of facilities to resources. If a certain location affords supplies of iron and coal for the use of industrial man and the raw material is extracted, there must arise industries closely connected with the mining, such as the production and repairing of tools in the neighborhood of the mines. If fortunately coal is near by the place specialization becomes centralization and a giant industry is founded. Without transportation facilities, however, the vast product could not be easily distributed to other centers where other products are being created. Exchange, too, must take place before there can be any wide benefit derived from the operation of the mines.
The movement of population from the primary places,