BEFORE a vast amount of production is possible, the earth must be searched for materials and long lines of cars and great fleets of vessels filled with raw materials to be placed in industrial centers. Still, the subordination of the elementary industries to the formative stage of production overshadows the exceptional improvements in railroad, steamship and transportation facilities and marks the industrial organization by the factory system. The factory system, the term now used to designate the methods of production in vogue in the modern industrial organization, is the evidence of a world set up on iron and coal. These have been supplemented through their material manifestation in the form of railroads, steamships, and means of communication, and resulted in the development of great commerce and a struggle of nations for commercial supremacy.
This form of national contest has taken the place of robbery and struggle for political power so evident in past history. The advance of civilization, together with the rapid accumulation of property in the past century, has eliminated plunder and made war a distinct disadvantage to the nations engaging in it. The contest, however, still goes on, not in an intermittent form as in the days of yore, but as a continuous industrial struggle for control of world-markets. Success in this contest de-