AT every stage of its history an industrial organization is forced by the conditions of existence to meet problems of a serious nature. These are the outcome of its evolution, of the adjustment of new methods to the old, or the elimination of the old by the newer ways. A dynamic society is the scene of a continual warfare between the advocates of different forms of industry and government, of sections whose interests for the time being conflict, of laborers, of employers, of all, in fact, who seek advantage, advancement or the retardation of change.
It matters not how far the state may have advanced in its industrial and political organization, problems continue to press for solution. Thus the steam-engine drives out the hand-loom and the stage-coach, the electric motor supersedes the foot-power of earlier days, the typewriter modifies the character of business, the elevator system of grain storage breaks up the older methods of handling wheat, the telephone and telegraph revolutionize communication, the trust reorganizes production and the trade- union affects the character of labor. Incoming hordes of people from foreign shores change the national and racial ideals in the process of amalgamation. New notions of class relations and governmental functions are introduced. The native population undergoes a gradual alteration in character and habits, and the centers of population are shifted in their relation to industry. Government is al-