Far Eastern Governments and Politics: China and Japan

By Paul M. A. Linebarger; Djang Chu et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
Government under the Meiji Constitution

PICTURESQUELY, but in authentic Japanese spirit, Chart 15 shows the political structure of pre-1945 Japan against a diagram in the shape of a chrysanthemum. It is thoroughly appropriate to think of the parliamentary government of the Meiji era as a series of concentric inner circles rather than as a frame of rigidly linked boxes, similar to the diagrams prepared for United States official use by the Bureau of the Budget and the Government Printing Office. The limits between official and unofficial, between juridical and customary, between pressures and authorities, were never demarcated as sharply in Japan as in America or other Western nations. The social origin and political epicenters of major factions cut like spokes from the masses of the people toward the very heart of sovereignty.

The Immense Cliques (Batsu). The Chinese character which is read in Chinese as fa and pronounced batsu in Japanese means "clique, grange, group, faction." In Japan there were four of these, of which one, the aristocratic, withered away in the early twentieth century, and another, the military, crashed to ruin in the year 1945. The financiers as one group and the bureaucracy as another remained; perhaps they have been joined by a new faction, that of the professional labor organizers and careerists in labor politics, but labor has yet to obtain recognition as one of the immense batsu of Japan.

The Japanese terms are themselves so common in Western newspaper and textbook usage that they are worthy of note. The clique of the aristocracy was called the mombatsu. The clique of financiers was called the zaibatsu. The clique of the career military and naval officials was called the gumbatsu. And the clique of the indestructible civil service was called the kambatsu. It should be noted immediately, of course, that the cliques themselves were by

-376-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Far Eastern Governments and Politics: China and Japan
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 644

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.