This book describes several important recent discoveries in different natural and social sciences, submits the concepts of each to a careful epistemological analysis, thereby arriving at an empirically verifiable theory of what a human being is and what groups of human beings called nations are, and then applies this theory and the political methods which it prescribes to the description and suggested solution of some major political problems of today's world. The first two words of the book's title derive from the fact that one of these discoveries occurred in the science of cultural anthropology when scientists such as Paul Radin and Clyde Kluckhohn found that even people without a written language share a common, but by no means simple, philosophy, and that to determine objectively the culture of a particular people one must specify their predominant philosophy.
The science of sociological jurisprudence receives similar attention in this volume. Its political importance arises from the fact that it investigates the relation between the positive legal and political normative rules and decisions of the government of any people and their underlying social customs and then specifies the requirements which must be satisfied if the legal and political decisions of the public officials are to succeed. Knowledge of these requirements is especially necessary today, since the present failures of free democracy both at home and abroad arise in major part from a conflict between the norms of a free democratic nation and the normative customs of the people to whom free democratic legal and political institutions are being applied.
Two recent discoveries in neurophysiological psychology receive