The Need for More Objective Political Methods
An approach to anything is no better than its methods. What are the methods of politics?
More than one is required. As shown in the previous chapter, today's political problems call for three things: (1) The determination of the specific normative content of the living law in any particular nation; (2) the effective implanting of a new positive law in an old living law; (3) the evaluation of what in the old living law is to be retained and what discarded in such reform of an old society. Clearly the scientific method for determining the living law in any particular case must be different from the scientific method for evaluating it after it is once determined. The former we shall call the descriptive method; the latter the evaluative method of philosophical anthropology.
It is not being suggested that in this new approach to politics every politician be an expert in these methods. It is reasonable to expect, however, that he know the qualitative living and positive legal norms of his own nation. Chapters 10, 11 and 17 will show that this is far from being the case. Nor is it being suggested that every secretary of state, executive head of government and member of any committee on foreign affairs of the national legislature, or each foreign service, intelligence or military officer be an expert in and carry through the application of these methods to every nation of the world. What this sociologically jurisprudential approach to politics does require, however, is that all these topmost policy makers have experts in these