Structural & Political
WILLIAM R. OCHIENG'
Kenya's colonial economy had been moulded into a distinctive pattern by the long years of colonial rule. It displayed characteristics typical of an underdeveloped economy at the periphery: the preponderance of foreign capital, the dominance of agriculture, the limited development of industry and heavy reliance on export of primary products and imports of capital and manufactured consumer goods. 1 This underdeveloped state of the economy meant that independent Kenya would have to formulate policies that would not only arrest Kenya's mounting urban and rural poverty and decay, but would also put the economy into the hands of the indigenous people. To meet these changes Kenyans would have to work hard to improve on existing infrastructural facilities, such as communications, hospitals, power supplies and educational and financial institutions.
Independent Kenya's leaders would also have to address themselves to the reversal of the export-orientated nature of Kenya's economy. Most of what was produced in Kenya during the colonial period was exported 'but most of the proceeds never returned for the development of the economy. Rather they were used for the development of Britain, the colonial power.' 2 The task of the uhuru government was therefore to formulate policies which would ensure that the citizens of Kenya had the greatest share of the subsequent development. 3
The main principles and strategies of Kenya's development after independence were laid down in the Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 entitled 'African Socialism and Its Application to Planning in Kenya'. In this document the Kenya African National Union (KANU) government outlined its political and economic philosophies. The government rejected both Western capitalism and Eastern communism. Tom Mboya,