Decolonization & Independence in Kenya, 1940-93

By B. A. Ogot; W. R. Ochieng | Go to book overview

Four
Structural & Political
Changes

WILLIAM R. OCHIENG'


Independent Kenya's Development Strategies

Kenya's colonial economy had been moulded into a distinctive pattern by the long years of colonial rule. It displayed characteristics typical of an underdeveloped economy at the periphery: the preponderance of foreign capital, the dominance of agriculture, the limited development of industry and heavy reliance on export of primary products and imports of capital and manufactured consumer goods. 1 This underdeveloped state of the economy meant that independent Kenya would have to formulate policies that would not only arrest Kenya's mounting urban and rural poverty and decay, but would also put the economy into the hands of the indigenous people. To meet these changes Kenyans would have to work hard to improve on existing infrastructural facilities, such as communications, hospitals, power supplies and educational and financial institutions.

Independent Kenya's leaders would also have to address themselves to the reversal of the export-orientated nature of Kenya's economy. Most of what was produced in Kenya during the colonial period was exported 'but most of the proceeds never returned for the development of the economy. Rather they were used for the development of Britain, the colonial power.' 2 The task of the uhuru government was therefore to formulate policies which would ensure that the citizens of Kenya had the greatest share of the subsequent development. 3

The main principles and strategies of Kenya's development after independence were laid down in the Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 entitled 'African Socialism and Its Application to Planning in Kenya'. In this document the Kenya African National Union (KANU) government outlined its political and economic philosophies. The government rejected both Western capitalism and Eastern communism. Tom Mboya,

-83-

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Decolonization & Independence in Kenya, 1940-93
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Contributors viii
  • Prologue on Decolonization xi
  • Notes xvii
  • Introduction the Invention of Kenya 1
  • Note 3
  • Part One the Decolonization of Kenya 1945-63 5
  • One Decolonization: A Theoretical Perspective 7
  • Conclusion 21
  • Notes 22
  • Two the Formative Years 1945-55 25
  • Conclusion: Towards an Alternative Future 43
  • Bibliography 44
  • Three: The Decisive Years 1956-63 48
  • Part Two the Kenyatta Era 1963-78 81
  • Four Structural & Political Changes 83
  • Conclusion 106
  • Appendix: Constitutional Amendments Under Kenyatta 107
  • Notes 108
  • Five - Social & Cultural Changes 110
  • Conclusion 143
  • Notes 144
  • Part Three the First Nyayo Decade 1978-88 149
  • Six the Economics of Structural Adjustment 151
  • Conclusion 182
  • Notes 183
  • Seven the Politics of Populism 187
  • Notes 213
  • Eight the Construction of a National Culture 214
  • Part Four Epilogue 1989-93 237
  • Nine Transition from Single-Party to Multiparty Political System 1989-93 239
  • Conclusion 259
  • Notes 260
  • Index 262
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