Decolonization & Independence in Kenya, 1940-93

By B. A. Ogot; W. R. Ochieng | Go to book overview

Appendix: Constitutional Amendments Under Kenyatta
1. The First Amendment of October 1964 abolished the office of the Prime Minister, who now became a strong executive President who was also the head of government, state and ruling party.
2. The Second Amendment abolished the office of the Regional President and the powers of the regions. The former regions now became provinces headed by provincial commissioners who were appointed directly by the President.
3. The Third Amendment of 1965 lowered the voting majority required to change the constitution from the original 90 per cent in the Senate and 75 per cent in the Lower House, to 65 per cent in both Houses.
4. The Fourth Amendment of 1966 stipulated that a member who failed to attend eight consecutive sittings of the National Assembly without the valid permission of the Speaker, or who was serving a prison sentence exceeding six months, would lose his parliamentary seat. The President could, however, use his discretion to pardon any such offender.
5. The Fifth Amendment of April 1966 laid down that any Member of Parliament who resigned from the party which had supported him at his election, but which had not been subsequently dissolved, must also resign his (or her) seat and fight a by-election.
6. The Sixth Amendment of 1966 empowered the President to declare a state of emergency in the country for twenty-eight days at a time, through a simple parliamentary majority, in order to handle any emergency that might arise in the country. Such powers could, however, be vetoed by a normal parliamentary majority of 65 per cent.
7. The Seventh Amendment of December 1966 abolished the Upper House (or Senate) to enable the government to secure the one- chamber legislature which it believed was essential for a strong central government.
8. The Eighth Amendment back-dated the Fifth Amendment, although those who joined KADU were not requested to resign to fight a by-election.
9. The Ninth Amendment stipulated a number of rules concerning presidential succession and election. First, any presidential candidate must be at least 35 years old. Second, a presidential candidate must be supported by a registered political party and at least 1,000 registered voters. Third, should the office of the president fall vacant for any reason, his vice-president would assume presidential powers for a period of ninety days, during which elections must be held to elect a new president.
10. The Tenth Amendment stated that any registered political party

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Decolonization & Independence in Kenya, 1940-93
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Contributors viii
  • Prologue on Decolonization xi
  • Notes xvii
  • Introduction the Invention of Kenya 1
  • Note 3
  • Part One the Decolonization of Kenya 1945-63 5
  • One Decolonization: A Theoretical Perspective 7
  • Conclusion 21
  • Notes 22
  • Two the Formative Years 1945-55 25
  • Conclusion: Towards an Alternative Future 43
  • Bibliography 44
  • Three: The Decisive Years 1956-63 48
  • Part Two the Kenyatta Era 1963-78 81
  • Four Structural & Political Changes 83
  • Conclusion 106
  • Appendix: Constitutional Amendments Under Kenyatta 107
  • Notes 108
  • Five - Social & Cultural Changes 110
  • Conclusion 143
  • Notes 144
  • Part Three the First Nyayo Decade 1978-88 149
  • Six the Economics of Structural Adjustment 151
  • Conclusion 182
  • Notes 183
  • Seven the Politics of Populism 187
  • Notes 213
  • Eight the Construction of a National Culture 214
  • Part Four Epilogue 1989-93 237
  • Nine Transition from Single-Party to Multiparty Political System 1989-93 239
  • Conclusion 259
  • Notes 260
  • Index 262
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