1. The New Point of View in the Later Writings. -- The romance of the New Heloïse was published in 1761, and was followed by the Emile and the Social Contract in the following year. Though all three were the ripe fruits of a long reflection, the actual work of composition was done after Rousseau's settlement in Montmorency at the end of the year 1757. The time that elapsed between the writing of the Discourse on Inequality and these three master-works was therefore quite short. It is all the more surprising to find a complete difference in temper between them. Superficially, indeed, the change is not very considerable. The same protests against the evils of social institutions are repeated in almost identical terms, and all the old watchwords of the Discourses recur with something of the original vehemence of statement. But behind the sameness of the letter there is a transformation of the whole spirit of the thought and the sentiment. An example will make the difference evident.
"The transition from the state of nature to the social state," he says in the First Book of the Social Contract,1 "produced a very remarkable change in man by substituting justice for instinct as the principle of conduct, and so imparting to his actions the moral____________________