Latin America and the Caribbean in the International System

By G. Pope Atkins | Go to book overview

CHAPTER SEVEN
Intra-American Integration
and Other Associations

Latin American and Caribbean state participation in international organizations at the Latin American regional and subregional levels is the subject of this chapter. Initiatives toward integration or other association in some combination of Latin American states date from the movements for independence to the present day. The nineteenth-century Spanish American congresses (called primarily to establish security communities) are discussed, followed by the complex post-World War II Latin American and Caribbean projects aimed at economic integration and/or political union. The discussion then proceeds to organizations designed to promote foreign policy coordination among the Latin American and Caribbean states and to increase their bargaining power with the rest of the world. The chapter also includes a treatment of the Latin American nuclear-free zone, a specialized regional international regime. Finally, it considers some other western hemispheric regimes: U.S.- Panamanian arrangements for the Panama Canal, governance of the U.S.-Mexican border, and the North American Free Trade Agreement and its possible extension to the other Americas.


THE MOVEMENT FOR SPANISH AMERICAN UNION

Americanismo

Subregional integration was first attempted in Latin America during the nineteenth- century movements for independence, when some Spanish American states sought to form larger political entities. 1 The efforts revealed an ambivalent intra-Spanish American "love-hate" relationship that has survived to the present day. The underlying ideology was called americanismo or, sometimes, "continental nationalism." Americanismo was the idea of a kindred Spanish American spirit growing out of a common colonial heritage, revolutionary experience, and culture, with a shared perception of Spanish American community that might form the basis of political union. Simón

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