Latin America and the Caribbean in the International System

By G. Pope Atkins | Go to book overview

dia, Australia, Canada, Sweden, Liberia, and Mauritania. Bolivia belonged to the International Tin Agreement (which collapsed in 1985). Jamaica is the chief producer and leader of the International Bauxite Association. Latin American banana producers organized the International Organization of Banana Exporters (IPEB).

Serious doubts exist about the viability of the cartels. A successful effort requires that producers are willing and able to withhold enough of their products to affect prices and that consumer demand remain relatively constant despite increased prices. These conditions are hard to satisfy, because producers often are unable to finance stockpiling or reduced production, and consumers often turn to substitutes or are willing to do without. Petroleum seemed to be the exception, because producers had the financial ability to control the volume of supply, and consumers had little choice other than to buy the crucial commodity at current world market prices. However, even OPEC ran into serious problems of supply, demand, and member- cohesion. Furthermore, high prices stimulated the major consumers to increase oil conservation efforts, seek alternative energy sources, and, for those able to do so, increase their own oil production.


NOTES
1.
James Brown Scott, The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, 2 vols. ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1909); Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Reports to the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907, ed. James Brown Scott ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917).
2.
J. Lloyd Mecham, A Survey of United States-Latin American Relations, ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965), 99.
3.
Augustín Edwards, La América Latina y la Liga de las Naciones (Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria, 1937); and Warren H. Kelchner, Latin American Relations with the League of Nations ( Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1929).
4.
J. Fred Rippy, Globe and Hemisphere ( Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1958), 519.
5.
For good general works on the United Nations, see Evan Luard, The United Nations: How It Works and What It Does, 2d ed., rev. by Derek Heater ( New York: St. Martin's, 1994); Karen A. Mingst and Margaret P. Karns, The United Nations in the Post-Cold War Era ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995); and Thomas Weiss, David R. Forsythe, and Roger A. Coate, The United Nations and Changing World Politics ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995).
6.
See G. Pope Atkins, Encyclopedia of the Inter-American System ( Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997), 450-452.
7.
The ICJ succeeded the Permanant Court of International Justice of the League of Nations in 1946. By informal agreement at the time, two of the fifteen judges were to be from Latin American states, rotating among themselves every two years; and in the 1970s the regional states agreed that one of those seats would be from a Commonwealth Caribbean Country. Larman C. Wilson and David W. Dent, Historical Dictionary of Inter-American Organizations (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 1998), 107-109.
8.
See Wilson and Dent, Historical Dictionary of Inter-American Organizations, 79.
9.
See Manuel Pastor Jr., The International Monetary Fund and Latin America: Economic Stabilization and Class Conflict ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987).

-267-

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