Pakistan, 1997

By Craig Baxter; Charles H. Kennedy | Go to book overview

Thirteenth Amendment by a vote of 79-0 and 190-0 respectively. The Sharif government amended the controversial parts of the 1985 Eighth Amendment by: deleting Article 58(2)(b) which had empowered the president to dissolve the National Assembly; amending Article 101, thus binding the president to appoint governors in provinces on the advice of the prime minister; deleting Article 112(2)(b) which had empowered governors to dissolve provincial assemblies; and modifying Article 243(9)(b), thereby removing the discretionary powers of the president to appoint armed services chiefs. The leader of the opposition, Benazir Bhutto, supported the move as did all other parties and independent members represented on the floor of the two houses. The move was generally hailed as the beginning of real democracy in Pakistan. Under Nawaz Sharif, the parliament is not only the most powerful institution of the state, it is also the most united platform of public representatives on fundamental issues relating to the division of powers within the state apparatus.


Conclusion

The 1997 elections in Pakistan displayed continuity with past patterns of social mobilization and political alignment but displayed substantive changes in the institutional expression of political power. Continuity was displayed in three areas. Firstly, the public continued to vote in pursuit of patronage and therefore backed individuals and parties carrying a credible potential to deliver goods. Secondly, electoral politics remained de-ideologized. The decade-long Islamization drive of Zia's martial law government had exhausted this source of legitimacy and mass mobilization. While Islamization led to the emergence of militant Islamic groups operating from sectarian platforms outside the parliament, it caused a gradual decline in the appeal of Islamic parties in terms of patronage politics. Thirdly, the ethnic-based political groups showed a tremendous capacity to survive and operate within a heavily centralized system dominated by Punjab. Meanwhile, the state of Pakistan seems to have moved toward accommodating regional aspirations by providing political space to ethnic leaders and by allowing them greater control over local administration. In addition, local leaders have been afforded a larger share of the revenue generated by local resources such as gas in Balochistan, water and power in the NWFP, and industry and commerce in Sindh.

A departure from past patterns was most apparent in two major developments. Firstly, the long term decline in the PPP's social base in the country has been finally exposed in a somewhat dramatic way. The PPP staged a comeback in 1988 on the basis of its latent support base rooted in Bhutto's charisma and its public image as the ultimate democratic force in the country by virtue of its opposition to the military government of Zia. However, the party's reformist posture and its appeal to the working classes took a nose-dive. This was apparent in the reduced vote for the PPP. While the PPP leadership has moved decisively towards the right, the elite groups in various sectors of the society continue to support the arch-

-14-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Pakistan, 1997
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • 1 - Pakistan Elections 1997: One Step Forward 1
  • Conclusion 14
  • Notes 15
  • 2 - Is Pakistan's Past Relevant for Its Economic Future? 17
  • Notes 33
  • 3 - Pakistan and the Post-Cold War Environment 37
  • Notes 57
  • 4 - Judiciary in Pakistan: A Quest for Independence 61
  • Conclusions 73
  • Notes 75
  • 5 - Liberalization of the Economy Through Privatization 79
  • Conclusions 89
  • Notes 97
  • 6 - Revivalism, Islamization, Sectarianism, and Violence in Pakistan 101
  • Notes 118
  • 7 - Challenging the State: 1990s Religious Movements in the Northwest Frontier Province 123
  • Notes 138
  • 8 - Pakistan's Environment: Pressures, Status, Impact, and Responses 143
  • Notes 159
  • Chronology (september 1994-April 1997) 163
  • About the Contributors 181
  • Index 183
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 192

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.